Instructions to Authors

Submission of Manuscripts. Papers should be submitted online via the URL: or to email ( Submission of a manuscript to SFARJ implies that (a) it has not previously been published, and (b) that is not being submitted for publication elsewhere. The Manuscript should be submitted in English as Ms-Word.

Reference Style (Since 01.04.2021)

Vancouver Output style

A citation is an acknowledgment in your text of references that support your work.  It is in the form of a number that correlates with a source in your reference list.

In the Vancouver Style, citations within the text of the essay/paper are identified by Arabic numbers in round brackets.

The Vancouver System assigns a number to each reference as it is cited.  A number must be used even if the author(s) is named in the sentence/text. e.g. Smith (10) has argued that...

The original number assigned to the reference is reused each time the reference is cited in the text, regardless of its previous position.

When multiple references are cited at a given place in the text, use a hyphen to join the first and last numbers that are inclusive. Use commas (without spaces) to separate non‐inclusive numbers in multiple citations e.g. (2,3,4,5,7,10) is abbreviated to (2‐5,7,10).

Do not use a hyphen if there are no citation numbers in between that support your statement e.g. (1‐2). Use instead (1,2).

  1. Standard journal article

(1) Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.

List the first six authors, followed by et al. If there are more than six authors, list the first six authors, followed by et al. (Note: NLM now lists all authors.):

Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.

  1. Organization as author

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.

  1. Both personal authors and organization as authors (List all as they appear in the byline.)

Vallancien G, Emberton M, Harving N, van Moorselaar RJ; Alf-One Study Group. Sexual dysfunction in 1,274 European men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2257-61.

  1. No author given

21st-century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.

Books and Other Monographs

  1. Personal author(s)

Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

  1. Editor(s), compiler(s) as author

Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

  1. Author(s) and editor(s)

Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.

  1. Organization(s) as author

American Occupational Therapy Association, Ad Hoc Committee on Occupational Therapy Manpower. Occupational therapy manpower: a plan for progress. Rockville (MD): The Association; 1985 Apr. 84 p.

National Lawyer's Guild AIDs Network (US); National Gay Rights Advocates (US). AIDS practice manual: a legal and educational guide. 2nd ed. San Francisco: The Network; 1988.

  1. Chapter in a book

Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

  1. Conference proceedings

Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumors V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.

  1. Conference paper

Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.

  1. Scientific or technical report

Issued by funding/sponsoring agency:

Yen GG (Oklahoma State University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stillwater, OK). Health monitoring on vibration signatures. Final report. Arlington (VA): Air Force Office of Scientific Research (US), Air Force Research Laboratory; 2002 Feb. Report No.: AFRLSRBLTR020123. Contract No.: F496209810049.

Issued by performing agency:

Russell ML, Goth-Goldstein R, Apte MG, Fisk WJ. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne Rhinovirus. Berkeley (CA): Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division; 2002 Jan. Report No.: LBNL49574. Contract No.: DEAC0376SF00098. Sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  1. Dissertation

Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.

  1. Patent

Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.

Electronic Material

  1. CD-ROM

Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson's electronic Atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.

  1. Journal article on the Internet

Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from: Subscription required.

Optional presentation (omits bracketed phrase that qualifies the journal title abbreviation):

Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from: Subscription required.

Article published on the Internet ahead of the print version:
See # 18.

Optional formats used by NLM in MEDLINE/PubMed:

Article with document number in place of traditional pagination:

Williams JS, Brown SM, Conlin PR. Videos in clinical medicine. Blood-pressure measurement. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 29;360(5):e6. PubMed PMID: 19179309.

Article with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Zhang M, Holman CD, Price SD, Sanfilippo FM, Preen DB, Bulsara MK. Comorbidity and repeat admission to hospital for adverse drug reactions in older adults: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Jan 7;338:a2752. doi: 10.1136/BMJ.a2752. PubMed PMID: 19129307; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2615549.

Article with unique publisher item identifier (pii) in place of traditional pagination or DOI:

Tegnell A, Dillner J, Andrae B. Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Sweden. Euro Surveill. 2009 Feb 12;14(6). pii: 19119. PubMed PMID: 19215721.

  1. Monographs on the Internet

Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from:

  1. Homepage/Web site [Internet]. Chicago: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; c2016 [cited 2016 Dec 27]. Available from:

  1. Part of a homepage/Web site

American Medical Association [Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2016 [cited 2016 Dec 27]. Office of International Medicine; [about 2 screens]. Available from:

  1. Database on the Internet

Open database:

Who's Certified [Internet]. Evanston (IL): The American Board of Medical Specialists. c2000 -   [cited 2001 Mar 8]. Available from:

Closed database:

Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congenital Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); c1999 [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2002 Aug 12]. Available from: //

  1. Part of a database on the Internet

MeSH Browser [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2002 -. Meta-analysis; [cited 2017 Dec 1]; [about 1 p.]. Available from: MeSH Unique ID: D017418.

  1. Blogs

Holt M. The Health Care Blog [Internet]. San Francisco: Matthew Holt. 2003 Oct -   [cited 2009 Feb 13]. Available from:

Contribution to a blog:

Montone J. Head trauma haunts many, researchers say. 2008 Jan 29 [cited 2009 Feb 13]. In: Wall Street Journal. HEALTH BLOG [Internet]. New York: Dow Jones & Company, Inc. c2008 -. [about 1 screen]. Available from:

Campbell A. Diabetes and alcohol: do the two mix? (Part 2). 2008 Jan 28 [cited 2009 Feb 13]. In: Diabetes Self-Management Blog [Internet]. New York: Diabetes Self-Management. [2006 Aug 14] -   . 2 p. Available from:

  1. Datasets

Dataset description article:

Kraemer MU, Sinka ME, Duda KA, Mylne A, Shearer FM, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Barker CM, Moore CG, Carvalho RG, Coelho GE, Van Bortel W, Hendrickx G, Schaffner F, Wint GR, Elyazar IR, Teng HJ, Hay SI.  The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence. Sci Data. 2015 Jul 7 [cited 2015 Oct 23];2:150035. Available from: doi: 10.1038/sdata.2015.35 eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26175912; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4493829.

Dataset deposit record: Citing Medicine format

Kraemer MUG, Sinka ME, Duda KA, Mylne A, Shearer FM, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Barker CM, Moore CG, Carvalho RG, Coelho GE, Van Bortel W, Hendrickx G, Schaffner F, Wint GRW, Elyazar IRF, Teng H, Hay SI. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence [dataset]. 2015 Jun 30 [cited 2015 Oct 23]. In: Dryad Digital Repository [Internet]. Durham (NC): Dryad. 2008 Jan - . 3 files: 3.406 MB; 1.549 MB; 1.815 MB. Available from: Referenced in doi: 10.7554/eLife.08347 

Dataset deposit record: Simplified format

Kraemer MUG, Sinka ME, Duda KA, Mylne A, Shearer FM, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Barker CM, Moore CG, Carvalho RG, Coelho GE, Van Bortel W, Hendrickx G, Schaffner F, Wint GRW, Elyazar IRF, Teng H, Hay SI. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence [dataset]. 2015 Jun 30 [cited 2015 Oct 23]. Dryad Digital Repository. Available from: Referenced in doi: 10.7554/eLife.08347 

Dataset repository: Citing Medicine format

Dryad Digital Repository [Internet]. Durham (NC): Dryad. 2008 Jan - [cited 2014 Oct 3]. Available from:

Dataset repository: Simplified format

Dryad Digital Repository. Durham (NC): Dryad. [cited 2014 Oct 3]. Available from:

Dataset: Citing Medicine format

RxNorm [dataset on the Internet]. April 4, 2016, Full Monthly Release. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2016 Apr 4 [cited 2016 Apr 18]. Available from:

Dataset: Simplified format

RxNorm [dataset]. April 4, 2016 Full Monthly Release. 2016 Apr 4 [cited 2016 Apr 18]. Available from:

  1. Software on the Internet

A full citation for software on the Internet can follow the general guidelines in Item #43 for datasets or in Citing Medicine, Chapter 24 for databases and retrieval systems. Software in other media such as CD-ROM is detailed in Citing Medicine, Chapter 21.

Software: Simplified format

The publisher is optional and a place of publication is not needed. Strive to include an Available from the note with a URL or a DOI: xxxxxxx note. Other helpful notes can be added at the end such as a System Requirements note.

Hayes B, Tesar B, Zurow K. OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software. Version 2.3.2 [software]. 2013 Jan 14 [cited 2015 Feb 14]. Available from:

Golda TG, Hough PD, Gay G. APPS PACK (Asynchronous Parallel Pattern Search). Version 5.0.1 [software]. Sandia National Laboratories. 2007 Feb 16 [cited 2016 Apr 4; downloaded 2010 Jan 5]. Available from:

References in other languages should be written English, then put the name of languages in front of the References in the Bracket.

Attention: To find the correct abbreviated name of the journals name for inclusion in the bibliography list please refer to:

Types of Articles

Research Articles:

The content of the paper must justify its length. For reports of original investigative work, the traditional division into sections is required: Title, Keywords, Addresses and which author address for correspondence, Abstract, Introduction, Objectives, Materials, and Methods, Results, Discussion  Or (Results and Discussion), References and Acknowledgements, Legends for display items (Figures and Tables).

Research articles should contain 2500-5000 words, the maximum number of references is 35, and the maximum number of illustrations/Tables is 5.

Review Articles:

Review Articles should contain 3500 - 5000 words, the maximum number of references is 50, and the maximum number of illustrations/Tables is 5. In a review article both the abstract and text of the manuscript, include the following items:

1) Context: Include 1 or 2 sentences describing the clinical question or issue and its importance in clinical practice or public health.

2) Evidence Acquisition: Describe the data sources used, including the search strategies, years searched, and other sources of material, such as subsequent reference searches of retrieved articles. Explain the methods used for quality assessment and the inclusion of identified articles.

3) Results: Address the major findings of the review of the clinical issue or topic in an evidence-based, objective, and balanced fashion, emphasizing the highest-quality evidence available.

4) Conclusions: Clearly state the conclusions to answer the questions posed if applicable, basing the conclusions on available evidence, and emphasize how clinicians should apply current knowledge.

Brief Reports:

Brief Reports should contain 1000 - 2000 words with an abstract of 200 words maximum. The abstracts must not exceed 200 words and should be a single paragraph with no subheadings. Short reports should comprise sections of Introduction, Objectives, Materials & Methods, Results, and Discussion with not more than 2 tables or figures and up to 20 references.

  • Short manuscripts definitively documenting either experimental results or informative clinical observations will be considered for publication in this category.
  • Brief Reports are not intended to allow publication of incomplete or preliminary findings.
  • The review process is equally rigorous as for Regular Articles and the acceptance rate is lower.
  • Another name of this type is "Brief communication"

Brief reports include the following items:

1) Introduction

2) Methods

3) A combined Results and Discussion section

4) Acknowledgments

5) Authorship Contributions

6) Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

7) References

Case Reports:

A case report is a case study, case report, or other description of a case that should contain a structured abstract. In other meaning, clinical presentations may be followed by evaluative studies that eventually lead to a diagnosis. Abstract of Case reports should comprise the introduction, Case Presentation, and Conclusions with not more than 2 tables or figures and up to 20 references. A case report includes:

1) Introduction

2) Case Presentation

3) Discussion

Technical Note:

A Technical Note is a report on a new method, technique, or procedure falling within the scope of SFAR Journal. It may involve a new algorithm, a computer program (e.g. for statistical analysis or for simulation), or a testing method for example. The Technical Note should be used for information that cannot adequately be incorporated into an Original Research Article, but that is of sufficient value to be brought to the attention of the readers of the SFARJ. The note should describe the nature of the new method, technique, or procedure and clarify how it differs from those currently in use. It should not occupy more than 4 Journal pages. Technical note structure: 1) Abstract containing a brief description of the newly developed method/procedure, it should not exceed more than 200 words, 2) Introduction, 3) Protocol, 4) Representative Results, 5) Discussion. It is strongly suggested that the manuscript be submitted with a video file as the supplementary file. 

 Authors & Affiliations

Author(s): full names of all authors should be mentioned.

Method: [First Name] [Middle Name] [Last Name]

Example: Marek Jan Brensht

Affiliation: The author's affiliation contains only the department and university, not the author's degree or position.

Method: [name of department], [name of university], [city], [country]

Example: Molecular Biology Department, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

Corresponding author: one of the authors should be picked out for possible correspondence before and after publication. Their address, telephone, fax number, and email should be written.


[Name of Recipient]

[Full Postal Address]

Tel: [country code] [city code] [Phone Number]

Fax: [country code] [city code] [Phone Number]



Ebrahim Talebi

Petersbon Street 2c, 6432 GC, Hoensbroek, The Netherlands

Tel: +31 22 1234566

Fax: +31 22 1234566



An abstract of 250-350 words should be provided to state the reason for the study, the main findings, and the conclusions drawn from the observation. Abstract of original articles and brief reports should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results, and major conclusions. Since an abstract is often presented separately from the article, it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, references should generally be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if their use is essential, they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


A list of 3-6 keywords must be provided for indexing purposes.

Manuscript Preparation

To send electronically, manuscripts should be in Word Document (Microsoft Word 97, 2003, 2007). Manuscripts, well-written in English, should follow the style of the agreement detailed in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Agricultural Journals. Please double-check the article for spelling, structure, and format mistakes.

Article Body

The rest of the article differs according to the article type you are submitting but generally includes the following headings: Introduction, Objectives, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and References.


An introduction should summarize the purpose and the rationale for the study. It should neither review the subject extensively nor should it have data or conclusions of the study.

Materials and Methods

This should include an exact method or observation or experiment. If an apparatus is used, its manufacturer's name and address should be given in parenthesis. If the method is established, give the reference but if the method is new, give enough information so that another author can perform it. If a drug is used, its generic name, dose, and route of administration must be given. A statistical method must be mentioned and specify any general computer program used. The Info system used should be mentioned.


It must be presented in the form of text, tables, and illustrations. The contents of the tables should not be repeated in the text. Instead, a reference to the table number may be given. Long articles may need subheadings within some sections (especially the Results and Discussion parts) to clarify their contents.


This should emphasize the present findings and the variations or similarities with other work done in the field by other workers. The detailed data should not be repeated in the discussion again. Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. It must be mentioned whether the hypothesis mentioned in the article is true, or false or no conclusions can be derived.


All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be covered in the acknowledgment section. It should include persons who provided technical help, writing assistance, and departmental head that only provided general support. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged.

Subdivision-Numbered Sections

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2,...) 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering).

Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its separate line.

Tables and Figures

All tables must be included at the end of the manuscript.

The tables in the word file should be separated by page break (each table on a separate page).

Each Table should have borders with normal style without any colored row or column.

The style of the table should be simple.

Each cell contains only one paragraph or one line.

(Figures must be submitted as separate files)

Authors should declare in the cover letter that all figures of their manuscripts are original, otherwise the source of figures should be mentioned and a reprint form must be uploaded in the attachments.

A scanned graph from other resources will not be accepted for publication.

All Figures should be in the form of encapsulated postscript (.eps), power point (.ppt), portable document format (.pdf), Photoshop (.psd), TIF (.tiff), PNG (png) or JPG (.jpg).

The raw data of the charts should be uploaded in Microsoft Excel format (MS Office 1997-2003)

Please scan all images in at least 300dpi. Most consumer scanners scan in sRGB by default. However, if you are using a high-end scanner then Adobe RGB is recommended for optimum color depth. Color space should be in RGB.

Image quality specification for Line art (an image composed of lines and text which does not contain tonal or shaded areas) has the resolution of 900 dpi, halftone (a continuous tone photograph that contains no text) with 300 dpi, and a combination of both should have 500 dpi of resolution. We will NOT accept any images with a resolution below 300 dpi.

 Units, Symbols, and Abbreviations

Internationally accepted units (International System of Units), symbols, and abbreviations must be used. Abbreviations should be used sparingly and must be introduced in parentheses upon the first mention. Abbreviations that have meaning only within the context of the specific manuscript should be avoided.

Financial Disclosure

Should apply for all manuscript submissions, including letters to the editor, opinion pieces, informal essays, and book reviews.

Authors are expected to provide detailed information about any relevant financial interests or financial conflicts within the past 5 years and for the foreseeable future.

Many universities and other institutions and organizations have established policies and thresholds for reporting financial interests and other conflicts of interest

Authors who have no relevant financial interests are asked to provide a statement indicating that they have no financial interests related to the material in the manuscript.


Prof. Subramanya reported receiving research grants and honoraria and consulting fees for speaking from Biosite and Roche. Dr. Bouchentouf reported receiving honoraria from Merck and Pfizer.


Detailed information regarding all financial and material support for the research and work

Not limited to grant support, funding sources, and provision of equipment and supplies.


Funding/Support: This study was supported in part by grant CA34988 from the National Institutes of Health and by a teaching and research scholarship from the American College of Physicians (Dr. Mahesha).

Author Contributions

We ask authors to describe what each author contributed, and these contributions to the work may be published at the editor's discretion.

Example: Author Contributions: Study concept and design: Fortes, Melchi, and Abeni. Analysis and interpretation of data: Fortes, Mastroeni, and Leffondre. Drafting of the manuscript: Fortes. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Mastroeni, Leffondre, Sampogna, Melchi, Mazzotti, Pasquini, and Abeni. Statistical analysis: Fortes and Mastoeni.


Yoon Kong Loke developed the original idea and the protocol, abstracted and analyzed data, wrote the manuscript, and is the guarantor. Deirdre Price and Sheena Derry contributed to the development of the protocol, abstracted data, and prepared the manuscript.

How to write?

Please clarify and write who was responsible for:

1-    Study concept and design:

2-    Acquisition of data:

3-    Analysis and interpretation of data:

4-    Drafting of the manuscript:

5-    Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content:

6-    Statistical analysis:

7-    Administrative, technical, and material support:

8-    Study supervision:

Role of the sponsor

The specific role of the funding organization or sponsor in:

Design and conduct of the study Collection,


Analysis of the data

Preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript


Role of the Sponsor:

The funding organizations are public institutions and had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, and analysis of the data; or preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript. The Mysore health departments provided practical support for the focus group and survey processes, including letters of endorsement, hospital contact information, and assistance with logistic arrangements for focus group sessions.

Disclosure of interest

All authors should study and agree with the terms below. 

Authors / Ethics and Disclosure

On behalf of all co-authors, I hereby confirm that I have reviewed and complied with the relevant Instructions to Authors, the Ethics in Publishing policy, and Conflicts of Interest disclosure. 

Please Note: Once submitted the manuscript cannot be withdrawn or sent elsewhere. The editors reserve the right to edit, shorten, modify or reject submitted manuscripts even after provisional acceptance. This may be based on English grammar, clarity, space limitations, journal style, or preference of the editors. The editors may opt not to disclose the reason for the rejection of a manuscript. The editor, editorial team, or publisher will not be held liable or hold responsibility for any shortcomings or mistakes in published manuscripts about contents disclosed therein including but not limited to drug dosage, methodology, surgical technique, etc. Research ethics guideline issues are the responsibility of the authors. Statements and opinions expressed in the chapters are those of the individual contributors and not necessarily those of the editors or publishers. No responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of the information contained in the published articles. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any damage or injury to animals or property arising from the use of any materials, instructions, methods, or ideas contained in the articles.

Author Disclosures

The article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated authors, and has not been published elsewhere.

The article is not currently being considered for publication by any other journal and will not be submitted for such review while under review by this journal.

The article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.

I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in my article.

If the article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this publishing agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.

Rights for scholarly use

I understand that I am hereby granted (without the need to obtain further permission) rights to use certain versions of the article, as described and defined below:

Internal Institutional Use: Use by the author's institution for classroom teaching at the institution (including distribution of copies, paper or electronic, and use in coursepacks and courseware programs) for scholarly purposes. For authors employed by companies, the use by that company for internal training purposes.

Personal Use:

Use by an author in the author's classroom teaching (including distribution of copies, paper or electronic), distribution of copies to research colleagues for their personal use, use in a subsequent compilation of the author's works, inclusion in a thesis or dissertation, preparation of other derivative works such as extending the article to book-length form, or otherwise using or re-using portions or excerpts in other works (with full acknowledgment of the original publication of the article).

Permitted Scholarly Posting:

Voluntary posting of published articles by an author on open Web sites for Commercial Use or Systematic Distribution is not permitted. Deposit in or posting to subject-oriented repositories (such as PubMed Central), or institutional repositories with mandates for systematic postings, is permitted only under specific agreements between the publisher and the repository, agency, or institution, and only consistent with the Copyright Owner's policies concerning such repositories.


Manuscripts describing any experimental research on animals should include a statement of approval by the Ethical Committee of the institute where the work was done, mentioning that the study was carried out according to the legal requirements of the relevant local or national authority. Before papers describing animal studies are accepted for publication in the SFARJ, the authors must convince the editors that the work conformed to appropriate ethical standards. The care and use of experimental animals must comply with the guidelines and policies of research institutes.


  • Corresponding authors must supply an email address to which correspondence can be emailed while their article is in production.
  • Word files of edited articles may be sent for checking via email before typesetting. These files must be checked carefully. Full instructions on how to correct and return the file to the Publisher will be attached to the email.
  • Electronic PDF proofs: Notification of the URL from where to download a PDF typeset page proof and further instructions will be sent by email to the corresponding author. The purpose of the PDF proof is a final check of the layout, and tables and figures. Alterations other than the essential correction of errors are unacceptable at the PDF proof stage. The proof should be checked, and approval to publish the article should be emailed to the Publisher by the manuscript ID indicated, otherwise, it may be signed off on by the Editor or held over to the next issue. Acrobat Reader will be required to read the PDF. This software can be downloaded free of charge from the following website: Acrobat Reader will enable the file to be opened, read on-screen, and printed out for any corrections to be added.

Withdrawal Regulations

Withdrawal definition is an action that takes the manuscript out of the review process and places it back into the author's dashboard.

Our View Regarding Withdrawal

In General, we do not suggest article withdrawal, since it wastes valuable manuscript processing time, money, and works invested by the publisher.

Withdrawal Steps

Pre-Review: is a period that an author(s) submit(s) her/his article until it is sent for review.

Peer-Review: This is a period the manuscript is submitted completely to the website and included in the review process.

Review–Final Decision: This is a period from the acceptance of an article until it is sent for publication if the article meets the journal standards.

Post-Publication: when a paper is published (online and/or hard copy).


Pre-Review: The author(s) can withdraw their papers at this step without paying any charges and/or posing compelling reasons.

Peer-Review: The authors must have compelling reasons, if not, the author will not be allowed to submit a paper in the future for five years. 

Review–Final Decision: The authors must have compelling reasons if not, the author will not be allowed to submit a paper in the future for five years. 

Post-Publication: Withdrawing at this step is not possible at all.

What Are Compelling Reasons?


Bogus claims of authorship

Multiple submission

Fraudulent use of data or the like

Infringements of professional ethical codes

Redundant publication

Failure to disclose a major competing interest

Should retraction be applied in cases of disputed authorship?

Retraction Regulations


A retraction is a public statement made about an earlier statement that is going to be removed from the journal. The retraction may be initiated by the editors of the journal, or by the author(s) of the paper. However, since responsibility for the journal’s content rests with the editor, s/he should always have the final decision about retracting material. Journal editors may retract publications even if all or some of the authors refuse to retract the publication themselves.

When should a publication be retracted?

Only published items can be retracted. Publications should be retracted as soon as possible after the journal editor is convinced that the publication is seriously flawed and misleading (or is redundant or plagiarized).

Authors sometimes request that articles are retracted when authorship is disputed after publication. If there is no reason to doubt the validity of the findings or the reliability of the data it is not appropriate to retract a publication solely on the grounds of an authorship dispute. In such cases, the journal editor should inform those involved in the dispute that s/he cannot adjudicate in such cases but will be willing to publish a correction to the author/contributor list if the authors/contributors (or their institutions) provide appropriate proof that such a change is justified.

Article Retraction Process

A retraction note titled “Retraction: [article title]” signed by the authors and/or the editor is published in the paginated part of a subsequent issue of the journal and listed in the contents list.

In the electronic version, a link is made to the original article.

The original article is retained unchanged save for a watermark on the .pdf indicating on each page that it is “retracted.”

The HTML version of the document is removed.

Wager E, Barbour V, Yentis S, Kleinert S. Retraction Guidelines. Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Sep 2009. Available from:


We accept all terms and conditions of COPE about plagiarism and in case, any attempt of plagiarism is brought to our attention accompanied by convincing evidence, we act based on flowcharts and workflows determined in COPE.

All submissions will be checked with iThenticate software in 2 stages: New Submission and After Acceptance from the editorial boards.


Republishing is a case of Plagiarism in our Journals

Our journals explicitly instruct authors not to submit papers or variations of papers on studies that have already been published elsewhere even in other languages than English. Especially those articles which are published in local journals (with local languages) are not permitted to be submitted in our journals.

Open Access Statement

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

All articles published by this journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

Section A: Publication and authorship

All submitted papers are subject to a strict peer-review process by at least two international reviewers that are experts in the area of the particular paper. Reviewers are being selected by Associate Editors and Editor in Chief. The author also can suggest reviewers for some journals and article types.

The factors that are taken into account in the review are relevance, originality, readability, statistical validity, and language.

The possible decisions include acceptance, minor revisions, major revisions, or rejection.

If authors are encouraged to revise and resubmit a submission, there is no guarantee that the revised submission will be accepted.

Rejected articles will not be re-reviewed.

The paper acceptance is constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism.

No research can be included in more than one publication, whether within the same journal or in another journal.

Section B: Authors' responsibilities

The authors must certify that their manuscript is their original work.

The authors must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published elsewhere, or even submitted and reviewed in another journal.

The authors must participate in the peer-review process and follow the comments.

The authors are obliged to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes.

All Authors mentioned in the paper must have significantly contributed to the research. The level of their contribution also must be defined in the “Authors’ Contributions” section of the article.

The authors must state that all data in the paper are authentic.

The authors must notify the Editors of any conflicts of interest.

The authors must identify all sources used in the creation of their manuscripts.

The authors must report any errors they discover in their published paper to the Editors.

The authors must not use irrelevant sources that may help other researchers/journals.

The authors cannot withdraw their articles within the review process or after submission, or they must pay the penalty defined by the publisher.

Section C: Peer review/responsibility for the reviewers

Reviewers should keep all information regarding papers confidential and treat them as privileged information.

Reviews should be conducted objectively, with no personal criticism of the author. No self-knowledge of the author(s) must affect their comments and decision.

Reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting arguments in 500 to 1000 words.

Reviewers may identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors.

Reviewers should also call to the Editor in Chief's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

Reviewers should not review manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

Section D: Editorial responsibilities

Editors (Associate Editors or Editor in Chief) have complete responsibility and authority to reject/accept an article.

Editors are responsible for the contents and overall quality of the publication.

Editors should always consider the needs of the authors and the readers when attempting to improve the publication.

Editors should guarantee the quality of the papers and the integrity of the academic record.

Editors should publish errata pages or make corrections when needed.

Editors should have a clear picture of research funding sources.

Editors should base their decisions solely on the papers' importance, originality, clarity, and relevance to the publication's scope.

Editors should not reverse their decisions nor overturn the ones of previous editors without serious reason.

Editors should preserve the anonymity of reviewers (in half-blind peer review journals).

Editors should ensure that all research material they publish conforms to internationally accepted ethical guidelines.

Editors should only accept a paper when reasonably certain.

Editors should act if they suspect misconduct, whether a paper is published or unpublished, and make all reasonable attempts to persist in obtaining a resolution to the problem.

Editors should not reject papers based on suspicions; they should have proof of misconduct.

Editors should not allow any conflicts of interest between staff, authors, reviewers, and board members.

Editors must not change their decision after submitting a decision (especially after rejection or acceptance) unless they have a serious reason. 

Plagiarism policy